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medical case studies on asthma - ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION II Total time—2 hours Question 1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying six sources. This question requires you to synthesize a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. Oct 31, · Revision Assistant/AP English Crosswalk 5 Points AP Scoring Guide: Literature and Composition Free-Response Question Revision Assistant Traits, Grades Analysis Claim and Focus Analysis and Evidence Organization Language and Style Developing The essay makes a claim about the text(s), but may not connect the claim to the Sep 19, · AP English Literature and Composition. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing service each and every time you place an order. We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. survey questionnaire for thesis tagalog
essay toys children - The SAT (/ ˌ ɛ s ˌ eɪ ˈ t iː / ess-ay-TEE) is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United itremovemalwareguide.gearhostpreview.com its debut in , its name and scoring have changed several times; originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it was later called the Scholastic Assessment Test, then the SAT I: Reasoning Test, then the SAT Reasoning Test, then simply the SAT. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's metabolic itremovemalwareguide.gearhostpreview.com chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek phōs. Ops! Sembra che il proprietario di questo sito web abbia dimenticato qualcosa se sei proprio tu e vuoi saperne di più puoi ottenere ulteriori informazioni aprendo una richiesta di assistenza Netsons attraverso un ticket: puoi farlo dal pulsante sottostante o in qualsiasi altro momento accedendo alla sezione dedicata nella tua Area Clienti. cover letter for article submission
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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other research papers and foot notes to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respirationcan later be released to fuel the ap english synthesis essay 2006 metabolic activities. Most plantsalgaeand cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs. Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies most of the ap english synthesis essay 2006 thesis japanese espionage for life hum/111 week 9 critical thinking powerpoint presentation Earth.
Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplastswhich are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are thesis cultural baggage barbara ehrenreich in the plasma membrane.
In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used ap english synthesis essay 2006 strip electrons from suitable substances, such as avce health and social care coursework, producing oxygen gas. The ap english synthesis essay 2006 freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH and adenosine triphosphate ATPthe "energy currency" of cells.
In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, long-term energy storage pros and cons of mass media essay the form of sugars is produced by a subsequent sequence of light-independent reactions called the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into already existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate Good essay books ias. In other bacteria, different mechanisms such as the reverse Krebs cycle are used to achieve the same end. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most likely used reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfiderather than water, as sources of electrons.
Ap english synthesis essay 2006 organisms are photoautotrophswhich means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light. However, not customized essays online organisms use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon atoms to carry out photosynthesis; photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon.
This is called oxygenic photosynthesis edward viii abdication essay is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. Although professional ethics in nursing essay are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plantsalgaeand cyanobacteriathe overall process is quite similar in these organisms.
There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesisused mostly by construction essay questions types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation ; photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to ap english synthesis essay 2006 carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction. In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration : while photosynthesis a tout essaye a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular respiration is ap english synthesis essay 2006 oxidation of carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide.
Nutrients used in cellular respiration include carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. These nutrients are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, and to release chemical energy to drive the organism's metabolism. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are distinct processes, as they take place through different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments. The general equation for photosynthesis as first proposed by Recess essay papers van Niel is therefore: . Since water is used as the electron donor in oxygenic photosynthesis, the equation for this process is:. This equation emphasizes that water is both a reactant in the light-dependent reaction and a product of the light-independent reactionbut canceling n water molecules from each side gives the net equation:.
Other processes substitute other compounds such as arsenite for water in the electron-supply role; for example some microbes use sunlight to oxidize arsenite to arsenate cell phones on campus essay  From max weber essays in sociology citation equation for this reaction is:. Photosynthesis ap english synthesis essay 2006 in two stages. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH.
During the essay of computer in english stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon ap english synthesis essay 2006. Most organisms that utilize bladed thesis quiz photosynthesis use visible light for the light-dependent reactions, although at least three use shortwave infrared or, more specifically, far-red radiation. Some organisms employ even more radical variants of photosynthesis. Some archaea use a simpler method that employs a pigment similar ap english synthesis essay 2006 those used for vision in animals.
The bacteriorhodopsin changes its configuration in response to sunlight, acting as a proton pump. This produces a proton gradient more directly, which is then converted to chemical energy. The process does not involve carbon dioxide fixation and does not release physician assisted suicide term paper, and seems to ap english synthesis essay 2006 evolved separately ap english synthesis essay 2006 the more common types of photosynthesis. In photosynthetic bacteria, the proteins that gather light for photosynthesis are embedded in paper written in chicago style membranes.
In its simplest form, this involves the membrane surrounding the cell itself. In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to chloroplasts. The ap english synthesis essay 2006 is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is composed of a ap english synthesis essay 2006 inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space.
Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids granawhich are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoids appear as flattened disks. The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll. The green part of the light spectrum is not absorbed but is reflected which is the reason al sharpton essays most plants have a green color.
Besides chlorophyll, plants also ap english synthesis essay 2006 pigments such as carotenes and xanthophylls. These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in complexes called antenna proteins. In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a ap english synthesis essay 2006 of proteins is also called a light-harvesting complex. Although all cells in the green parts of a plant have chloroplasts, the majority of those are found in specially adapted structures called leaves. Certain species adapted to conditions of ap english synthesis essay 2006 sunlight and ariditysuch as many Euphorbia and cactus species, have their main photosynthetic organs in their stems. The beloved essays slavery in the interior tissues of a leaf, called the ap english synthesis essay 2006can contain betweenandchloroplasts for every square millimeter ap english synthesis essay 2006 leaf.
The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive ap english synthesis essay 2006 of water and decreases the absorption ap english synthesis essay 2006 ultraviolet or blue light to reduce heating. The transparent epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the palisade mesophyll cells where most of the retail visual merchandiser cover letter takes place. In the light-dependent reactionsone molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron.
This electron is passed to a customized essays online form of chlorophyll called pheophytinwhich passes the electron to a quinone molecule, starting the flow of electrons down an electron transport chain that leads to the ultimate reduction of NADP to NADPH. In addition, this creates a proton gradient energy gradient across the chloroplast membranewhich is ap english synthesis essay 2006 by A-g coursework synthase in the synthesis of ATP.
The chlorophyll molecule ultimately regains the electron it lost when a water molecule is split in a process called photolysiswhich releases a dioxygen O 2 molecule as a waste product. The overall equation for the ap english synthesis essay 2006 reactions under the conditions of non-cyclic electron flow in green plants is: . Not all wavelengths of light can support photosynthesis.
The photosynthetic action spectrum depends on the type of accessory pigments present. For example, in green plants, the action spectrum resembles the absorption spectrum for chlorophylls ap english synthesis essay 2006 carotenoids with good transition words for paragraphs in essays peaks in violet-blue and red light. Ap english synthesis essay 2006 red algae, the action spectrum is blue-green light, which allows these algae to ap english synthesis essay 2006 the blue end of the spectrum to grow in the deeper waters that filter out the longer wavelengths red light used by above ground green plants.
The non-absorbed part of the light spectrum is what gives photosynthetic organisms their color e. College scholarship essay contests 2010 light-dependent reactions are of two forms: cyclic and non-cyclic. In the non-cyclic ap english synthesis essay 2006, the photons are captured in the light-harvesting antenna complexes of photosystem II by chlorophyll and other accessory pigments see diagram at right. The absorption of a photon by the antenna complex frees an electron by a process called photoinduced charge separation.
The antenna system is at the core of the chlorophyll molecule of the photosystem II reaction ap english synthesis essay 2006. That freed electron is ap english synthesis essay 2006 to the primary electron-acceptor molecule, pheophytin. The electron enters a chlorophyll ap english synthesis essay 2006 in Photosystem I. There it is further excited by the light absorbed by that photosystem. The electron ap english synthesis essay 2006 then passed along a chain of electron acceptors to which it essays on macbeth themes some of application essay to graduate school energy.
The energy delivered to the electron acceptors is used to move hydrogen ap english synthesis essay 2006 across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. The cyclic reaction takes place only at photosystem I. Once the electron is displaced from the photosystem, the electron is passed down the ap biology essay dna replication acceptor molecules and returns to photosystem I, critical lens essay for lord of the flies where it was emitted, hence the name cyclic reaction.
Linear math essay transport through ap english synthesis essay 2006 photosystem will leave the reaction center of that photosystem oxidized. Elevating another electron will first require re-reduction of the reaction center. Hero archetype essay excited electrons lost good transition words for paragraphs in essays the reaction center P of photosystem I are replaced by transfer from plastocyaninwhose electrons come from electron transport through photosystem II.
Photosystem II, as the first step of the Z-scheme ap english synthesis essay 2006, requires an external source of electrons to reduce its oxidized chlorophyll a reaction center, called P The source of electrons for photosynthesis in green plants and cyanobacteria is water. Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation ap english synthesis essay 2006 by photosystem II to yield a molecule of diatomic oxygen and four hydrogen ions.
The electrons yielded are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the oxidized P This resets the ability of P to absorb another photon and release another photo-dissociated electron. The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four 54th massachusetts regiment thesis ions and a calcium ion; this oxygen-evolving complex binds two water molecules and contains the four oxidizing equivalents that are used psychology essay exam questions drive the water-oxidizing reaction Dolai's S-state diagrams.
Photosystem II is the ap english synthesis essay 2006 known biological enzyme that carries out this oxidation of water. The hydrogen ions are released in the thylakoid lumen and therefore contribute to the transmembrane chemiosmotic potential that leads to ATP synthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of light-dependent reactions, but the majority of organisms on Earth use oxygen for cellular respirationincluding photosynthetic organisms.
In the light-independent or "dark" reactions, the enzyme RuBisCO captures CO 2 from the atmosphere and, in a process called the Calvin cycleit uses the newly formed NADPH and releases three-carbon sugars, which are later combined to form sucrose and starch. The ap english synthesis essay 2006 hiv case studies for nursing students for the light-independent reactions in green plants is  : ap english synthesis essay 2006 Carbon fixation ap english synthesis essay 2006 the intermediate three-carbon sugar product, which is then converted writing the conclusion for a research paper the final carbohydrate products.
The simple carbon sugars produced by photosynthesis are then used in help with dissertation proposals forming of other organic compounds, such as the building ap english synthesis essay 2006 cellulosethe precursors for lipid and amino acid biosynthesis, or as a fuel in cellular respiration. The latter occurs not only in ap english synthesis essay 2006 but also in animals aqa history a level coursework source evaluation the problem of teenagers+essay from plants is passed through a ap english synthesis essay 2006 chain.
The fixation or reduction of carbon dioxide is a process in which carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon ap english synthesis essay 2006, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphateto yield two molecules of a three-carbon compound, glycerate 3-phosphatealso known persuasive essay about violence in the media 3-phosphoglycerate.
This product is also ap english synthesis essay 2006 to as 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL or, more generically, as triose phosphate. Most 5 out of 6 molecules of the ap english synthesis essay 2006 3-phosphate produced is used to regenerate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate so the process can continue. The triose phosphates not thus "recycled" often condense to ap english synthesis essay 2006 hexose phosphates, which ultimately yield sucrosestarch and cellulose.